Adair, Zakiya R. “Negotiating Spectacle: Florence Mills, Josephine Baker & Adelaide Hall, Transnational Black Women’s Expressive Culture 1920-1935.” University of Washington, 2010. https://www.proquest.com/docview/275919373/fulltextPDF/D2DC39236DE34F0BPQ/1?accountid=351.
Adair, Zakiya R. “Respectable Vamp: A Black Feminist Analysis of Florence Mills’ Career in Early Vaudeville Theater.” Journal of African American Studies Vol. 17, No. 1, no. Special Issue: Black Girls’ and Women’s Resistance Strategies (March 2013): 7-21 (15 pages).
“Afro-American Vaudeville Booking Association.” Freeman. January 22, 1910, vol. XXIII, no. 4 edition. Readex: African American Newspapers.
Brown, Jayna. Babylon Girls Black Women Performers and the Shaping of the Modern. Duke University Press, 2008. https://www.dukeupress.edu/babylon-girls.
Cowens, Herbert. New York: Herbert Cowens Oral History, April 19, 1987. The American Mosaic: The African American Experience,. https://africanamerican2.abc-clio.com/Search/Display/1650933?
Davis, Angela Y. Blues Legacies and Black Feminism: Gertrude Ma Rainey, Bessie Smith, and Billie Holiday. Vintage; 1st Vintage Books Ed edition, 2011.
“Edmonia Henderson Charms With Voice And Smile.” The Afro-American. May 30, 1925.
“Eva Jessye Please as Radio Actress.” Plaindealer. April 28, 1933.
FitzGerald, Sarah W. “‘I Got Something to Tell You’: The Life and Comedy of Jackie ‘Moms’ Mabley.” University of California, 2021. https://escholarship.org/uc/item/8cn4t0j8#author.
George-Graves, Nadine. The Royalty of Negro Vaudeville : The Whitman Sisters and the Negotiation of Race, Gender and Class in African American Theater. 1st edition. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 2000.
Harrison, Daphne. Black Pearls : Blues Queens of the 1920s. New Brunswick [N.J.] : Rutgers University Press, 1988.
“Harlem ’Negro Capital of the Nation.” Plaindealer. March 24, 1939. Readex: African American Newspapers.
Ida Cox. Photograph. The American Mosaic: The African American Experience. Accessed October 13, 2021. https://africanamerican2-abc-clio-com.ezproxy.stolaf.edu/Search/Display/2172305.
Kearns, Amber. “African-American Vaudeville: Separate and Unequal.” American Vaudeville Association and University of Arizona, n.d. https://vaudeville.sites.arizona.edu/node/69.
Kibler, Alison M. Rank Ladies Gender and Cultural Hierarchy in American Vaudeville. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1999. https://uncpress.org/book/9780807848128/rank-ladies/.
“Klein, Goldberg, Turpin, Meyers Form Big Theatrical Combine to ‘Carry on’: Majestic Theatrical Circuit and T.O.B.A. Get Together and Apparently Mean Business That Will Help the Negro Performer.” The New York Amsterdam Newspaper (1922-1938). August 8, 1928. ProQuest.
Knight, Athelia. “In Retrospect: Sherman H. Dudley. He Paved the Way for T. O. B. A.” The Black Perspective in Music Vol. 15, No. 2. (Autumn 1987): Pp. 153-181.
Lieb, Sandra R. Mother of the Blues : A Study of Ma Rainey. Print Book1981 [Amherst] : University of Massachusetts Press, 1981. https://stolaf.on.worldcat.org/v2/search?queryString=no%3A+7283419.
McGinley, Paige A. Staging the Blues From Tent Shows to Tourism. Durham, N.C., and London: Duke University Press, 2014. https://www.dukeupress.edu/staging-the-blues.
Peterson, Bernard L. The African American Theatre Directory, 1816-1960 : A Comprehensive Guide to Early Black Theatre Organizations, Companies, Theatres, and Performing Groups. Westport, Conn: Greenwood Press, 1997.
Peterson, Bernard L. Profiles of African American Stage Performers and Theatre People, 1816-1960. Westport, Conn: Greenwood Press, 2000. https://search.alexanderstreet.com/view/work/bibliographic_entity%7Cbibliographic_details%7C3819332#page/1/mode/1/chapter/bibliographic_entity%7Cdocument%7C3827650.
Riis, Thomas. “Theater Owners’ Booking Association.” Oxford University Press 2021, January 20, 2002. https://doi.org/10.1093/gmo/9781561592630.article.J445700.
Sampson, Henry T. Blacks in Blackface : A Sourcebook on Early Black Musical Shows. 2nd ed. Scarecrow Press, 2013. https://ebookcentral.proquest.com/lib/stolaf-ebooks/detail.action?docID=1550762.
Scott, Michelle R. Blues Empress in Black Chattanooga : Bessie Smith and the Emerging Urban South. University of Illinois Press, 2008. https://search.proquest.com/legacydocview/EBC/3413987?accountid=351.
Semmes, Clovis E. The Regal Theater and Black Culture. New York: Palgrave Macmillan US, 2006. https://www.proquest.com/undefined/regal-theater-black-culture/docview/2152900987/se-2?accountid=351
Stearns, Marshal, and Jean Stearns. “American Vernacular Dance: The Whitman Sisters.” Southwest Review Vol. 51, No. 4 (Autumn 1966): Pp. 350-358.
“T.O.B.A. BOOKINGS: W. R. ARNOLD, PUB. AGT.” The Chicago Defender (National Edition) (1921-1967). April 18, 1925. ProQuest.
“Tom the Tattler, Chicago, Illinois.” Freeman. December 22, 1900.