Future Directions


Our maps not only present our data in a clear and cogent way. They also serve as tools for future research on Milhaud and the interwar period, as well as demonstrate the possibilities and benefits of conducting historical musicological research through mapping.


Using the data and trends revealed in our maps, future research on Milhaud could include:

  1. Investigating and explaining the correlation between geographic location and genre of the pieces performed.
  2. Exploring the interaction of politics, taste, and publicity. To what extent can we attribute Milhaud’s popularity in Central Europe to systems of patronage and publishing houses? To what extent was Milhaud’s popularity in Germany due to the tastes of German audiences, rather than financial and political networks?


Other Milhaud-centered mapping investigations could explore:

  1. The geographic distribution of the critical reception of his works. Were reviews more favorable in certain geographic areas, and did this change over time?
  2. Do a more in depth analysis of the geographical outreach of French versus German newspapers (with a larger data) to make definitive claims about: a) the centralization of French newspapers (focusing on Paris for the most), and b) the obstruction (by German newspapers) of performances of Milhaud’s music in Paris
  3. The influence of geography on stylistic elements of his pieces. What parts of the world most influenced how his music sounded? Was this a result of his travels, and how did the use of certain styles/sounds reflect or influence his worldview? Did Milhaud envision or unconsciously produce an aural representation of a geographically imagined “ideal Provence”1 in his music, and could this be compared to other strains of post-WWI, neo-nationalist ideologies and aesthetics? How did the meanings of particular sounds or musical styles change once they were appropriated or incorporated into his works?
  4. Make maps that have separate layers for separate publishing companies and that show whether French publishing companies were as successful in securing German performances for Milhaud’s music as German-speaking publishers.


Our performances map could also be replicated for Honegger, Poulenc, and Stravinsky. This would allow us to compare the geographic spread of each composer’s works, and help determine whether or not Milhaud’s success in Germany was unique. Our Comparative Composer Premieres Map would serve as the basis for this more comprehensive map of performances.