Acknowledgements and Bibliography



We would like to thank the following people for their invaluable support of and contributions to our project:

Sara Dale – Instructional Technologist for Geospatial and Data Services, St. Olaf College

Beth Christensen – Music Librarian, St. Olaf College

Marti Newland – Executive Director and Co-Founder of the H.T. Burleigh Society

Lynne Foote – President and Co-Founder of the H.T. Burleigh Society

Jean Snyder – Author of Harry T. Burleigh: From the Spiritual to the Harlem Renaissance

Emily Hynes ‘18 – PhD Candidate in Musicology, UNC Chapel Hill

Jack Gieseking – Assistant Professor of Geography, University of Kentucky

Sam Parker ‘18 – Independent Web Developer

Ezra Plemons – Instructional Technologist for Digital Media, St. Olaf College

Brian Stevens – Archivist and Special Collections Librarian, West Connecticut State University

Emily Woolf – Digital Archive and Repertoire Administrator, Wigmore Hall, London, UK

David McKnight – Rare Book and Manuscript Library Director, University of Pennsylvania

Grant Olwage – Senior Lecturer, University of Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa




American Choral Music. Library of Congress, Music Division, Library of Congress, Washington, DC.

Ball State University School of Music Concert and Event Programs. Ball State University Libraries Digital Media Repository, Ball State University.

Carnegie Hall Archives. Carnegie Hall, New York City, NY.

Charles L. Blockson Afro-American Collection. Temple Digital Collections, Temple University Libraries, Temple University.

Chronicling America: Historic American Newspapers. The Library of Congress.

David Rumsey Map Collection. Cartography Associates.

Department of Special Collections. Davidson Library, University of California, Santa Barbara. Accessed via National Jukebox, The Library of Congress.

Discography of American Historical Recordings. University of California Santa Barbara Library, University of California Santa Barbara.

Dorothy West Digital Collection. Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study, Harvard University.

HathiTrust Digital Library.

History of Erie County, Pennsylvania. Cornell University Library, Cornell University accessed via

Kansas Memory. Kansas Historical Society, Topeka, KS.

Marian Anderson Collection, MS 068. Western CT State University Archives’ Digital Collections, Western Connecticut State University.

Marian Anderson Papers. Kislak Center for Special Collections, Rare Books and Manuscripts, University of Pennsylvania.

The New York Public Library Digital Collections, The New York Public Library.

The New York Times Archives accessed via TimesMachine.

Pennsylvania Newspaper Archive. Penn State University Libraries, Penn State University.

Proms Performance Archive. The BBC Proms, London, UK.

Sheet Music Collection. Music Library and Bill Schurk Sound Archives, University Libraries, Bowling Green State University.

Special Collections and University Archives. University of Massachusetts Amherst Libraries, University of Massachusetts Amherst.

The Times Digital Archive accessed via Gale Primary Sources.

U.S. City Directories, 1822-1995. Accessed via

U.S. Federal Census Collection. National Archives and Records Administration accessed via

W. E. B. Du Bois Papers, 1803-1999 (bulk 1877-1963), MS 312. Special Collections and University Archives, University of Massachusetts Amherst.

The Wigmore Hall Archive. Wigmore Hall, London, UK.

Periodicals and Newspapers

Africo-American Presbyterian
American Music
The Appeal
Arkansas State Press
The Atlanta Constitution
Baltimore Afro-American
The Black Perspective in Music
Bluefield Daily Telegraph
The Boston Globe
The Brainerd Daily Dispatch
The Broad Ax
The Bronxville Press
Charleston Daily Mail
The Chicago Defender
The Christian Advocate
The Cleveland Gazette
Colorado Springs Gazette
The Colored American
The Crisis: A Record of the Darker Races
The Daily Collegian
The Daily Inter Ocean
The Daily Oklahoman
The Dallas Morning News
Detroit Tribune
Duluth News Tribune
Evening Public Ledger
Fort Worth Star-Telegram
Harrisburg Telegraph
Indianapolis Freeman
Jonesboro Daily Tribune
Journal of Singing
Kansas City Advocate
The Kansas Industrialist
Kansas Whip
Kingston Daily Gleaner
The Lass-O
London Standard
Los Angeles Times
The Macon Daily Telegraph
Manatee River Journal
Le Ménestrel: Journal de Musique
Metropolitan Post
The Music Magazine – Musical Courier
Music News
Musical America
The Negro Music Journal
The Negro Star
The New Music Review
New York Amsterdam News
New York Herald
The New York Times
New-York Tribune
Oakland Sunshine
The Oregonian
Pacific Stars and Stripes
The Patriot
People’s Elevator
Philadelphia Inquirer
The Plain Dealer
The Times
The Times-Picayune
The Topeka Plaindealer
Trenton Evening Times
Tulsa World
Savannah Tribune
La Semaine à Paris
Springfield Republican
La Stampa
The Sun
Trenton Evening Times
The Washington Bee

Books and Scholarly Journals

Anderson, Marian. My Lord, What a Morning: An Autobiography. New York: Viking, 1956.

Anderson, Paul Allen. Deep River: Music and Memory in Harlem Renaissance Thought. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2001.

Arsenault, Raymond. The Sound of Freedom: Marian Anderson, the Lincoln Memorial, and the Concert That Awakened America. 1st U.S. ed. New York: Bloomsbury, 2009.

Beckerman, Michael. Dvořák and His World. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1993.

———. “Dvořák’s ‘New World’ Largo and ‘The Song of Hiawatha.’” 19th-Century Music 16, no. 1 (Summer 1992): 35-48.

———. “Henry Krehbiel, Antonín Dvořák, and the Symphony ‘From the New World.’” Notes 49, no. 2 (1992): 447-73.

Brooks, Christopher A., and Robert Sims. Roland Hayes: The Legacy of an American Tenor. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2014.

Brooks, Tim. Lost Sounds: Blacks and the Birth of the Recording Industry, 1890-1919. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2004.

Carter, Marva Griffin. Swing Along: The Musical Life of Will Marion Cook. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2008.

Cuney-Hare, Maud. Negro Musicians and Their Music. Washington, DC: The Associated Publishers, 1936.

Downes, Edward. The New York Philharmonic Guide to the Symphony. New York: Walker and Company, 1967.

Dvořák, Otakar, and Paul Polansky. Antonín Dvořák, My Father. Spillville, IA: Czech Historical Research Center, 1993.

FitzGerald, Garret and Charles Lysaght. “John McCormack.” In Great Irish Lives: An Era in Obituaries. London: Times Books, 2008.

Floyd, Samuel A., Jr. “Music in the Harlem Renaissance: An Overview.” In Black Music in the Harlem Renaissance: A Collection of Essays. Edited by Samuel A. Floyd, Jr., 1-27. New York: Greenwood, 1990.

———. “The Invisibility and Fame of Harry T. Burleigh: Retrospect and Prospect.” Black Music Research Journal 24, no. 2 (Fall 2004) 179-194.

Frankenstein, Alfred. A Modern Guide to Symphonic Music. 1st ed. New York: Meredith, 1966.

Gody, Lou, ed. The WPA Guide to New York City. New York: Pantheon Books, 1982.

Helm, MacKinley. Angel Mo’ and Her Son, Roland Hayes. Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1942.

Horowitz, Joseph. “Dvořák and Boston.” American Music 18, no. 1 (Spring 2001): 3-17.

Johnson, Helene and Verner D. Mitchell. This Waiting for Love: Helene Johnson, Poet of the Harlem Renaissance. Amherst, University of Massachusetts Press, 2000.

Johnson, James Weldon. Black Manhattan. American Negro, His History and Literature. New York: Arno Press, 1968.

Keiler, Allan. Marian Anderson: A Singer’s Journey. New York: Scribner, 2000.

Krehbiel, Henry. Afro-American Folksongs: A Study in Racial and National Music. New York: Frederick Ungar Publishing, 1962.

Lovell, John. Black Song: The Forge and the Flame; The Story of How the Afro-American Spiritual Was Hammered Out. New York: Macmillan, 1972.

Lubasch, Arnold H. Robeson: An American Ballad. Lanham, MD: Scarecrow Press, 2012.

Miller, John. A Twentieth Century History of Erie County, Pennsylvania. Chicago: Lewis Publishing Company, 1909.

Patterson, Lindsay. The Negro in Music and Art. 2nd ed. International Library of Negro Life and History. New York: Publishers, 1968.

Peress, Maurice. Dvořák to Ellington: A Conductor Explores American’s Music and Its African American Roots. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004.

Roach, Hildred. Black American Music: Past and Present. Boston: Crescendo Publishing, 1973.

Robeson, Paul. Paul Robeson Speaks: Writings, Speeches, Interviews, 1918-1974. Edited by Philip S. Foner. Larchmont, NY: Brunner/Mazel, 1978.

Robeson, Paul, Jr. The Undiscovered Paul Robeson: An Artist’s Journey, 1898-1939. New York: Wiley, 2001.

Simpson, Anne Key. Hard Trials: The Life and Music of Harry T. Burleigh. Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow Press, 1990.

Smith, Jessie Carney. Notable Black American Women. Detroit: Gale Research, 1992.

Snyder, Jean E. Harry T. Burleigh: From the Spiritual to the Harlem Renaissance. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2016.

———. “Harry T. Burleigh, ‘One of Erie’s Most Popular Church Singers.’” Black Music Research Journal 24, no. 2 (2004): 195-225.

Southern, Eileen. The Music of Black Americans: A History. 1st ed. New York: W. W. Norton, 1971.

Stevenson, Janet. Marian Anderson, Singing to the World. Chicago: Encyclopaedia Britannica Press, 1963.

Taruskin, Richard. Music in the Nineteenth Century. Rev. ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010.

West, Dorothy. The Richer, the Poorer: Stories, Sketches, and Reminiscences. 1st ed. New York: Doubleday, 1995.

Whitman, Benjamin. Nelson’s Biographical Dictionary and Historical Reference Book of Erie County, Pennsylvania. Erie: S. B. Nelson, 1896.

Wintz, Cary D., and Paul Finkelman, eds. Encyclopedia of the Harlem Renaissance. New York: Routledge, 2004.

Other Sources

Aborn, Merton Robert. “The Influence on American Musical Culture of Dvořák’s Sojourn in America.” PhD diss., Indiana University, 1965. ProQuest (AAT 302134053).

Baranello, Micaela. “Welcoming a Black Composer into the Canon. Finally.” New York Times, February 9, 2018.

Doug Shadle (@DougShadle). “Everyone knows that the Chicago SO premiered Price’s Symphony in E Minor in 1933. We also know that this concert was supposed to celebrate black musicians.” Twitter, November 19, 2018, 7:30 p.m.

Dvořák American Heritage Association. “Dvořák: Dvořák in America.” Accessed January 18, 2019.

Erie’s History and Memorabilia. “The Himrod family were one of the early settlers of Erie county. Their active interests in public matters, in Church and in state, in peace and in war.” Facebook, March 5, 2016.

Fallon, Kelly Marie. “An ‘Alien Foundation’: The Eclecticism of Antonín Dvořák’s American Period. Master’s thesis, Marshall University, 2014. ProQuest (AAT  1540738341).

First Presbyterian Church of the Covenant. “About Us: History of the First Presbyterian Church of the Covenant.” Accessed January 26, 2019.

Gannon University. “A Catholic University: History of the Chapel.” Accessed January 26, 2019.

Grove Music Online. Accessed January 25, 2019.

Harry T. Burleigh Society. “Mission.” Harry T. Burleigh Society: Advancing Burleigh Studies through scholarship and performance. Accessed January 27, 2019.

Historic Map Works: Residential Genealogy. “New York Historical Maps and Atlases.” Accessed January 22, 2019.

Library of Congress. “H. T. Burleigh (1866-1949).” Biographies. Accessed January 27, 2019.

MeastroDJS. “Dvořák as I Knew Him.” The Classical Music Guide Forums, June 27, 2009.

New York Society for Ethical Culture. “Building Centennial.” Ethical. Accessed January 16, 2019.

Ross, Alex. “The Rediscovery of Florence Price: How an African-American Composer’s Works Were Saved from Destruction.” The New Yorker, February 5, 2018.

St. Philip’s Episcopal Church. Home page. Accessed January 15, 2019.

Temple Anshe Hesed. “Our History.” Accessed January 27, 2019.

The White House Historical Association. “Lillian Evanti.” Accessed January 22, 2019.

York, Laura. “Thomas, Edna (1886–1974).” In Women in World History: A Biographical Encyclopedia. Accessed January 15, 2019.

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